Variable stars are crucial for testing our theories of stellar development, from bloated red giants nearing the end of their lives to binary stars engaged in deadly gravitational dances. They play a significant role in stellar astrophysics.
However, extrinsic variables and intrinsic variables are the two basic categories of variable stars. Intrinsic variables are stars whose magnitude changes are brought on by internal physical processes in the star. For instance, many red giants, like Betelgeuse (Alpha () Orionis) or Mira, contract and expand over the course of months; as the star’s surface widens, it gets fainter; as it contracts, it gets brighter. Stars known as intrinsic variables undergo changes in magnitude as a result of internal physical processes. Many red giant stars, for instance, such as Betelgeuse (Alpha () Orionis) or Mira, shrink and expand over the course of months; as the star’s surface extends, they grow fainter; as the star shrinks, they become brighter. Eruptive variables are the result of violent changes to the star’s surface. For example, intense flare activity can brighten a star by six magnitudes. The novae and supernovae are more striking examples.
However, Variable stars are amazing when observed with a telescope.
Quick Guide to Observe the Variable Stars.
The recommended aperture size for objects brighter than the seventh magnitude is 4 inches (102 mm). Pay attention to your impressions since red giants may appear brighter than they truly are. Aim the scope at the variable stars by positioning it in the finder’s center. For a closer look, choose an eyepiece with the lowest power and highest focal length. A 20 mm eyepiece or Barlow lens, for example, will perform better in this situation. Check the alignment of the finder scope if you are having trouble finding the variable stars.
How to find Variable Stars?
- The first step in beginning an observation of variable stars is to select a few.
- Starting with some variables that are simple to find is a smart approach.
- Some require more frequent observation than others. Eruptive or dwarf novae can be seen on any clear night, whereas pulsating Mira-type stars should only be examined once a week (as their changes are sluggish).
- After centering it in the finder, aim the scope at the variable stars.
- When examining anything closely, use the eyepiece with the lowest power and highest focal length. For optimal results, use a 20 mm eyepiece or Barlow lens. Check the finder scope’s alignment if you can’t see any variable stars.
- Check your focus after you’ve located the variable stars.
Classification Of Variable Stars:
Eclipsing binary star
These two stars orbit one another and are aligned so that one of them passes in front of the other.
They expand and contract on a regular basis, such that they can be used as a distance measurement tool.
A Variable star that is erratic and semi-regular and lack a pattern in their brightness variation
Their brightness swings because of the material ejected near the equator from their rapid rotation.
8 Tips to observe the Variable Stars in the best way.
- You must print off a good variable star chart before you can start your observations (more on this below)
- For variable stars, seeing conditions aren’t all that crucial, but you’ll want the sky to be clear and avoid strong moonlight.
- Record the date, time (in UT – Universal Time), your magnitude estimate, and the chart sequence of your observations in an astronomical notebook. The size and model of the telescope should also be noted.
- It’s crucial that you identify the variable star in the field, so take your time and make sure the stars in your field of view correspond to those on your chart.
- It’s generally preferable to start out using a low-power eyepiece. You should now be able to compare the stars you can see to the ones on your chart.
- Find a good comparison star, ideally one of similar brightness, and note how much brighter or fainter the variable is in relation to it after you’ve found and confirmed your variable.
- The Pogson step method is an effective way to accomplish this. With the aid of a comparison star, you may determine a variable star’s magnitude in increments of 0.1 magnitude.
- Therefore, you would record it as “103 – 4” if your comparison star is mag. + 10.3 and you believe the variable to be four tenths brighter.
Which Variable Stars you can observe with a telescope?
- Algol (Beta (b) Persei) is made up of three stars: Beta Persei Aa 1 and 2, and the fainter Beta Persei Ab.
- The two blazing main stars, Beta Persei Aa 1 and Beta Persei Aa 2, eclipse one another and take around 10 hours to complete.
- Algol’s magnification is typically about + 2.1, but every 2.9 days it drops to + 3.4. Consider observing it every clear night.
- SS Cygni is a dwarf novae that can be seen around the lovely double star 75 Cygni in the constellation of Cygnus, the Swan.
- The star is roughly mag. + 12.0 while quiescent (in a state of inactivity), but during an outburst it can brighten to about mag. + 8.0.
- Every 7 to 8 hours, SS Cygni experiences similar outbursts, therefore it should be seen anytime there is a clear night.
- Chi (c) Cygni is a magnificent red giant of the Mira type that may be found at the base of the “Northern Cross” asterism in Cygnus, not too far from Eta (e) Cygni.
- Chi Cygni can reach a maximum brightness of mag. + 3.5 over the course of around 400 days before waning to its lowest brightness of mag. + 14. Material from Chi Cygni is being ejected into space; this material will eventually coalesce to form a planetary nebula. If at all feasible, try to observe this star once per week.
- Another stunning red giant can be found nearby Seginus (Gamma () Boötes) in Boötes, the Herdsman. Mag. + 7.0 to mag. + 12.0 are the ranges for this star over a 258-day period.
- Studies of the light curve have revealed a secondary period of roughly 137 days, and the overall light curve during the early 20th century was somewhat different (the star may be transitioning from being a Mira-type star). Aim to do so once every week.
- A notable example of an RV Tauri variable is this yellow supergiant star. Both Beta (Scuti) and the magnificent Wild Duck Cluster, M 11, are nearby.
- This star’s light curve exhibits periods of deep minima and unusual’stand-stills,’ in which its brightness remains constant for extended periods of time.
- Although many questions remain unanswered, it is believed that the star’s dynamics are to blame. Watch this star whenever you have the chance.
- Draw a straight line from Aldebaran in the Taurus constellation to Cetus. Your best bet is a star map. Between Eta Eridani and Alpha Piscium, it’s around midway between them.
- The brightest of the long-lived “red” variable stars, Mira is a huge, pulsating star that is also known as the beautiful Omicron Ceti. Despite the fact that its exact maximum is never anticipated, it has a duration of 332 days.
- In the Northern Hemisphere, the Orion constellation is simple to locate in the winter. The star above and to the left of the Orion belt is called Betelgeuse.
- The Orion constellation’s top left corner is where you can see this brilliant orange red star. The majority of people are unaware that this star fluctuates in brightness but only very slightly.
- Over a period of around 6 years, its brilliance gradually increases and decreases. It is predicted that Betelgeuse will have a supernova explosion in the next million years. And it will be worthwhile to view. In fact, for a brief period of time, we should be able to see it throughout the day.
What telescope to see the Variable Stars?
Celestron NexStar 8SE, Celestron Astro Fi 102, Orion SkyQuest XT6 Classic Dobsonian are great telescopes to see the Variable Stars. A list of telescopes has more telescope options that can see the Variable Stars very clearly.
What size telescope to see the Variable Stars?
In fact, you shouldn’t use a telescope larger than a 4 inch (102 mm) aperture for objects brighter than the eighth magnitude. Also watch out for bias; red giants sometimes appear to be brighter than they actually are.
What magnification is required to see the Variable Stars?
It just takes a 50x magnification to see all of the variable stars. To observe the details, 150x magnification is preferable.
Enjoying the Variable Stars? Here are other things to see with your telescope.
The wonders of the dark night sky can be seen through a telescope. Besides Venus, Mercury, asteroids, meteor showers, and other things in the night sky, you may see details of them with the same telescope you use to examine the variable stars. ‘How to See the Binary Star With A Telescope?’ can guide you to observe some double stars. You also can look at the ‘List of things to see with a telescope’ which offers a summary of several night sky objects you can view using various telescopes.